Material Shaping Processes


Engineering Studies – P1 Fundamental Engineering  –  Materials and Manufacturing

This topic introduces manufacturing methods applicable to various materials and shape requirements. The fundamental relationship between properties and manufacturing technique are key concepts of this topic.

Key Concepts

  • The fundamentals of shaping materials
  • Relating the material to the shape requirements
  • Relating the shaping process to the shape requirements

Discussion Questions

  1. Discuss each of these categories of shaping material:
    • casting – the pouring of liquid into prepared moulds
    • manipulative processes – involving plastic deformation of the material
    • powder techniques – the shape is produced by compacting a powder
    • cutting, joining and grinding operations
  2. Explain how the shaping processes are dependent on material used and shape requirements of the product.
  3. Describe the production of items considering the raw materials, preparation for forming, the forming process, and testing for quality.
    • For metals:  discriminate between cold working processes (press work, cold forging, rolling, coining) and hot working (casting, hot forging, powder forming).
    • For thermosetting polymers: hot compression moulding, transfer moulding.
    • For thermosoftening polymers: Injection moulding, extrusion, blow moulding, calendaring, vacuum forming.
    • For ceramics, including glass: hand forming, flat drawn glass (Industrial glass), blown glass, casting, extrusion (bricks).


Open Die Drop Forging - YouTube
Drop Forging - YouTube
Aluminium Extrusion - YouTube
Indirect extrusion - YouTube
Indirect Extrusion with explanation - YouTube
Impact extrusion - YouTube
Sand Casting - YouTube
Die Casting - YouTube
Shell Casting - YouTube
Investment Casting - YouTube
Centrifugal Casting - YouTube